Author Archives: Admin1

Hello World! in Python

First of all you need to install python if it is not already installed. Python download page:

Python installation path should be added as an system variable in Windows:

  • Open System Properties by typing sysdm.cpl in Command Prompt window
  • Go to the Advanced tab and click the Environment Variables
  • In System variables find the Path variable and click Edit
  • Add the path where Python is installed

In Windows you can open a command prompt and type the following command:

py --version

or just type py and press Enter. You must see Python start up:

If you are using Visual Studio Code do one of the following:

  • Right click anywhere in the editor window > Run Python file in Terminal
  • Main menu > View > Command Palette… > Python: Start REPL > Type the lines of code and press Enter
  • Select the Lines of code > right click > Run Selection/Line in Python Terminal
print "Hello World!\n"

Voltage tolerances (DC)

Voltage [V] ± 5%Min value [V]Max value [V]
2 1.92.1

Inkscape – RGBA

R – Red

G – Green

B – Blue

A – Alpha (transparency)

Example 1 (A = 255)

Draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle > Fill and Stroke… > select the Fill tab > choose Flat color > enter RGBA values.

Inkscape RGBA (1)

Example 2 (A = 150)

Inkscape RGBA (2)

Storage Temperature

Storage Temperature is the temperature at which the device can be safely stored when unpowered.


A device can be kept in a storage for a temperature range -65 °C to +150 °C and yet still function as it should when used in a circuit.

Storage Temperature can be found on component’s Datasheet (Absolute Maximum Ratings table).


[1] Analog Devices, Technical Article MS-2251

What is a ransomware attack?

Ransom + Software = Ransomware

Ransomware will either:

  • lock the computer to prevent the user from normal usage or
  • encrypt the data that it stored on the victim’s hard disk to prevent access.

Ransomware is a type of malware that forces its victim to pay the ransom through certain online payment methods so as to grand access to their system or to decrypt their data.

Payment is often required in the form of cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin.

In order to minimize the impact of ransomware maintain an offline backup of end-user data.

Example of Ransomware: Locky, CryptoLocker, Cerber, Simplelocker.

Schréder Owlet Nightshift – Telemanagement system

  • Website:
  • Owlet uses ZigBee (2.4 GHz) for data transfer. The ZigBee wireless connection has a guaranteed distance of 100m.
  • The system is controlled with a simple web interface, which is actually a cloud application. Two types of users can be defined: Administrator and Standard user.

Owlet Nightshift - Web Interface

  • OLC (Outdoor Luminaire Controller)
    • LuCo-NX (Luminaire Controller Next Generation) – controls a single lamp. The LuCo-NX is meant to be fitted directly in the luminaire.
    • CoCo (Column Controller) – Ideal if more than one load is attached to a pole i.e. festive lighting.
  • SeCo (Segment Controller)
    • The SeCo collects data from the OLCs.
    • The link between the OLCs and the web interface.
    • The  SeCo is connected to the internet via a 3G network.
    • A SeCo controls one segment with up to 150 luminaire controllers.
    • Light points can be organized in groups (i.e intersections, main roads, crosswalk, etc.).


Total number of luminaires: 370 (Schréder TECEO 32LED/51W, Schréder GL2C 16LED/19W)

We may have 3 Segment Controllers (SeCo). Each SeCo is equipped with a SIM card so as to connect to the 3G network:

  • First Segment: 140 luminaire controllers
  • Second Segment: 140 luminaire controllers
  • Third Segment: 90 luminaire controllers

Another similar telemanagement system for monitoring, controlling and measuring street lighting systems is Philips City Touch.



Регистър (Register)

Регистър – устройство, което запомня определен брой двоични информационни разреди (битове) така, че върху тях да се извършват определени операции. Регистърът може да се разглежда като вид оперативна памет. Ако един регистър може да запомни М бита (М двоични разреди), той се нарича М-разреден регистър.